Consciousness & Perception

There are many different ways to study consciousness. Much of the work in the lab uses investigates perceptual processing using a range of methods. The goal is to understand the breadth of possible conscious states along with the biological processes that determine and support them. The lab also explores more theoretical questions associated with consciousness science.

We are part of the Melbourne Monash Consciousness Research (MMCR) network.

Journal Articles


  • Woods, T., Windt, J. & Carter, O. (2022) Evidence synthesis indicates contentless experiences in meditation are neither truly contentless nor identical. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. 1-52 [PDF]
  • Woods, T., Windt, J. & Carter, O. (2022) The path to contentless experiences in meditation: An evidence synthesis based on expert texts. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. 1-38 [PDF]


  • Nguyen, B., Malavita, M., Carter, O., McKendrick, A. (2021) Neuroplasticity in older adults revealed by temporary occlusion of one eye, Cortex 143 1-11 [PDF]
  • Virathone, L., Nguyen, B., Dobson, F., Carter, O. & McKendrick, A (2021)  Exercise alone impacts short-term adult visual neuroplasticity in a monocular deprivation paradigm Journal of vision 21 (11), 1-17 [Link]



  • Chan, Y., Pitchaimuthu, Q., Wu, Q., Carter, O., Egan, G., Badcock, D. & McKendrick, A. (2019) Relating excitatory and inhibitory neurochemicals to visual perception: a magnetic resonance study of occipital cortex between migraine events Plos One   14(7): e0208666 [PDF]
  • Stanley, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O (2019) Rivalry onset in and around the Fovea: The role of visual field location and eye dominance on perceptual dominance bias Vision 3(4), 51 [PDF]
  • Darke, H., Cropper, S. & Carter, O (2019) A Novel Dynamic Morphed Stimuli Set to Assess Sensitivity to Identity and Emotion Attributes in Faces Frontiers in Psychology 10: 757 [PDF] [Stimuli Set Zip File]


  • Carter, O., Hohwy, J., van Boxtel, J., Lamme, V., Block, N., Koch, C. & Tsuchiya, N (2018) Conscious machines: Defining questions Science 359 (6374): 400 [PDF]
  • Bayne, T. & Carter, O. (2018) Dimensions of Consciousness and the psychedelic state  Neuroscience of Consciousness (1) niy008: 1-8 [PDF]
  • Liu, P., Forte, J., Sewell, D. & Carter. O. (2018) Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing Attention, Perception and Psychophysics 80(4): 929-950 [PDF]


  • Pitchaimuthu, K., Wu, Q., Carter, O., Nguyen., B., Ahn, S., Egan., G. & McKendrick, A. (2017) Occipital GABA levels in older adults and their relationship to visual perceptual suppression. Scientific Reports 7: 14231 [URL]
  • Antinori, A., Carter, O., & Smillie, L. (2017). Seeing It Both Ways: Openness to Experience and Binocular Rivalry Suppression. Journal of Research in Personality 68: 15-22. [PDF]
  • Antinori, A., Smillie, L. D., & Carter, O. (2017). Personality Measures Link Slower Binocular Rivalry Switch Rates to Higher Levels of Self-Discipline. Front Psychol 7, 2008. [PDF]


  • Howe, P. & Carter, O. (2016). Hallucinations and mental imagery demonstrate top-down effects on visual perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39: e248.[PDF]


  • Carter, O., Snyder, J., Fung, S. & Rubin, N. (2014). Using ambiguous plaid stimuli to investigate the influence of immediate prior experience on perception. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 76(1), 133–47. [PDF]
  • O'Connor, D. A., Meade, B., Carter, O., Rossiter, S. & Hester, R. (2014). Behavioral sensitivity to reward is reduced for far objects. Psychological Science 25(1), 271–277. [PDF]


  • Barutchu, A., Carter, O., Hester, R., & Levy, N. (2013). Strength in cognitive self-regulation. Front Psychol 4, 174. [PDF]
  • Barutchu, A., Becker, S., Carter, O., Hester, R. & Levy, N. (2013). The Role of Task-Related Learned Representations in Explaining Asymmetries in Task Switching. PLoS One 8(4). [PDF]


  • Cocchi, L., Toepel, U., De Lucia, M., Martuzzi, R., Wood, S., Carter, O. & Murray, M. (2011) Working memory load improves early stages of independent visual processing. Neuropsychologia 49(1): 92-102. [PDF]
  • Cocchi, L., Zalesky, A., Toepel, U., Whitford, J., De Lucia, M., Murray, M. & Carter, O (2011) Dynamic changes in brain functional connectivity during concurrent dual-task performance. PLoS One 6(11): e28301 1-9 [PDF]
  • McKendrick, A., Battista, J., Snyder, J. & Carter, O (2011) Visual and auditory perceptual rivalry in migraine. Cephalalgia 31(11): 58-69 [PDF]
  • Stanley, J., Forte, J., Cavanagh, P. & Carter, O. (2011) Onset rivalry: the initial dominance phase is independent of ongoing perceptual alternations. Front Human Neurosci 5:140. [PDF]
  • Stanley, J., Carter, O. & Forte, J. (2011) Color and luminance influence, but can not explain, binocular rivalry onset bias PLoS One 6(5): e18978 1-9. [PDF]


  • Snyder, J., Holder, W., Weintraub, D., Carter, O. & Alain, C. (2009) Effects of prior stimulus and prior perception on neural correlates of auditory stream segregation. Psychophysiology 46(6): 1208-15. [PDF]
  • Snyder, J., Carter, O., Hannon, E. & Alain. C. (2009) Adaptation reveals multiple levels of representation in auditory stream segregation. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 35(4): 1232-44. [PDF]
  • Naber, M., Carter, O., & Verstraten, F. (2009) Suppression wave dynamics reveal visual field anisotropies and inducer strength. Vision Research 49(14): 1805-13. [PDF]


  • Snyder, J., Carter, O., Lee, S.K., Hannon, E. & Alain. C. (2008) Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 34(4):1007-16. [PDF]


  • Carter, O. & Cavanagh, P. (2007) Onset rivalry: Brief presentation isolates an early independent phase of perceptual competition PLoS One 2(4): e343. [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Presti, D., Callistemon, C., Liu, G. B., Ungerer, Y. & Pettigrew, J. D. (2005) Meditation Alters Perceptual Rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist Monks. Current Biology 15(11): R412-R413. [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Campbell, T., Liu, G. B. & Wallis, G. (2004) Contradictory influence of context on predominance during binocular rivalry. Clin Exp Optom 87(3): 153-62. [PDF]


  • Carter, O. & Pettigrew, J. (2003) A Common Oscillator for Perceptual Rivalries? Perception 32 (3): 295-305. [PDF]


  • Pettigrew, J. & Carter, O. (2002) Vision as motivation: interhemispheric oscillation alters perception. Adv Exp Med Biol 508:461-9 [PDF]

Book Chapters

  • Pettigrew, J. & Carter, O. (2004) Perceptual Rivalry as an Ultradian Oscillation. In: Binocular rivalry. (Eds.) David Alais and Randolph Blake, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA [PDF]