Minds & Technology

The use of technology to augment, stimulate or simulate the human mind is increasing every day. From brain stimulation to pupil dilation, technology can be used to manipulate or investigate the mind.

Journal Articles


  • Carter, O., Hohwy, J., van Boxtel, J., Lamme, V., Block, N., Koch, C. & Tsuchiya, N (2018) Conscious machines: Defining questions Science 359 (6374): 400 [PDF]


  • Carter, O., & Forte, J. (2016). Regulate devices for brain stimulation. Nature 533(7602): 179–179. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Carter, O., & Forte, J. (2016). No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols. Neuropsychologia 91: 544–52. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Vogrin, S., Carter, O., Cook, M. & Forte, J. (2016). Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions. Experimental Brain Research 234(9): 2629–42. [PDF]


  • Horvath, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O. (2015). Quantitative Review Finds No Evidence of Cognitive Effects in Healthy Populations From Single-session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Brain Stimulation 8(3): 535–50. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O. (2015). Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review: Neuropsychologia 66: 213-36. [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Snyder, J., Fung, S., & Rubin, N. (2014). Using ambiguous plaid stimuli to investigate the influence of immediate prior experience on perception. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 76(1): 133–147. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J. C., Carter, O., & Forte, J. D. (2014). Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be). Front Syst Neurosci 8: 2. [PDF]


  • Stoll, J., Chatelle, C., Carter, O., Koch, C., Laureys, S., & Einhäuser, W. (2013). Pupil responses allow communication in locked-in syndrome patients. Current Biology 23(15), R647–8. [PDF]
  • Naber, M., Stoll, J., Einhäuser, W., & Carter, O. (2013). How to become a mentalist: reading decisions from a competitor's pupil can be achieved without training but requires instruction. PLoS One 8(8), e73302. [PDF]


  • Einhäuser, W., Koch, C. & Carter, O. (2010) Pupil dilation betrays the timing of decisions. Front Human Neurosci 4(18): 1-9. [PDF]


  • Einhäuser, W., Stout, J., Koch, C. & Carter, O. (2008) Pupil dilation reflects perceptual selection and predicts subsequent stability in perceptual rivalry. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(5): 1704-09. [PDF]