Neuroimaging & Brain Stimulation

Research conducted by the lab has used EEG and MRI spectroscopy to investigate electrical and neurochemical changes in the brain associated with normal and abnormal brain function. We are also interested in understanding the impact of non-invasive brain stimulation (e.g. TMS and tDCS) in terms of both the nature and the reliability of any effects induced.

Journal Articles


  • Larsen, M., Dzafic, I., Darke, H., Pertile. H., Carter. O., Sundram. S & Garrido, M. (2020) Aberrant connectivity in auditory precision encoding in schizophrenia spectrum disorder and across the continuum of psychotic-like experiences. Schizophrenia Research [Early View - PDF]


  • Chan, Y., Pitchaimuthu, Q., Wu, Q., Carter, O., Egan, G., Badcock, D. & McKendrick, A. (2019) Relating excitatory and inhibitory neurochemicals to visual perception: a magnetic resonance study of occipital cortex between migraine events Plos One  14(7): e0208666 [PDF]


  • Pitchaimuthu, K., Wu, Q., Carter, O., Nguyen., B., Ahn, S., Egan., G. & McKendrick, A. (2017) Occipital GABA levels in older adults and their relationship to visual perceptual suppression. Scientific Reports 7: 14231 [URL]


  • Carter, O. & Forte, J. (2016). Regulate devices for brain stimulation. Nature 533(7602), 179–179. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Carter, O. & Forte, J. (2016). No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols. Neuropsychologia 91, 544–52. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Vogrin, S., Carter, O., Cook, M., & Forte, J. (2016). Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions. Experimental Brain Research 234(9), 2629–42. [PDF]


  • Horvath, J., Forte, J., & Carter, O. (2015). Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review: Neuropsychologia 66: 213-36. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O. (2015). Quantitative Review Finds No Evidence of Cognitive Effects in Healthy Populations From Single-session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Brain Stimulation 8(3), 535–50. [PDF]


  • Horvath, J. C., Carter, O., & Forte, J. D. (2014). Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be). Front Syst Neurosci 8, 2. [PDF]