Brain Stimulation

Current technologies claim to alter neural activity with the use of magnetic or electrical stimulation externally applied to the head. We are interested in understanding the impact of these low levels of electrical stimulation (e.g. tDCS) in terms of the nature and reliability of the effects induced.

Journal Articles


  • Carter, O. & Forte, J. (2016). Regulate devices for brain stimulation. Nature 533(7602), 179–179. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Carter, O. & Forte, J. (2016). No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols. Neuropsychologia 91, 544–52. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Vogrin, S., Carter, O., Cook, M., & Forte, J. (2016). Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions. Experimental Brain Research 234(9), 2629–42. [PDF]


  • Horvath, J., Forte, J., & Carter, O. (2015). Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review: Neuropsychologia 66: 213-36. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O. (2015). Quantitative Review Finds No Evidence of Cognitive Effects in Healthy Populations From Single-session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Brain Stimulation 8(3), 535–50. [PDF]


  • Horvath, J. C., Carter, O., & Forte, J. D. (2014). Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be). Front Syst Neurosci 8, 2. [PDF]