Study Findings

The data collected from ADS participants has been used to answer many important questions about risk and resilience for adolescent mental health problems. The data has also been used to explore fundamental questions about adolescent development (for example, adolescent structural brain development).

Research findings from ADS data have been published in over 50 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Publications can be found below, classified by themes. Summaries of articles can be found by searching for titles on PubMed.

If you would like to know more about any of these findings, please contact us via the contact page.

  • Alcohol Use

    Many Australian adolescents report alcohol use prior to reaching the legal drinking age of 18. As underage drinking can be harmful, we wanted to take a closer look at how tendencies to experience particular emotions might motivate young people to use alcohol. To do this, we looked at our participants responses to questions asking how old they were when they had their first drink, how often they drink and in what amounts, and whether they had experienced alcohol-related problems, like getting sick or alcohol induced violence/aggression. We found that the more extraverted participants tended to start drinking at an earlier age – which seems logical given that extraversion is associated with greater risk taking. However, extraversion wasn’t associated with experiencing alcohol-related problems; rather, alcohol related problems were associated with a tendency to experience negative emotions (such as frustration and sadness), along with difficulties in controlling emotions more generally. Interestingly, we found that these characteristics predicted alcohol-related problems even when accounting for overall alcohol use. This suggests that drinking to deal with or control negative emotions might increase the risk of experiencing problems regardless of how much one drinks. These findings were published by Cheetham et al., in 2014 in Psychopharmacology.

  • Brain Development

    Many of our participants had up to three brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans as part of the project. Using data from the MRI scans, we have been able to map the trajectories of structural and functional brain development across the entire period of adolescence, from age 11 to 20. We used this data to publish one of the first papers worldwide that described normative patterns of development of a number of aspects of brain structure using a longitudinal design. We found that while the thickness of the cortex decreases with age (right image below, warm colours), the cortical surface area increases with age (left image, cool colours). These findings were published by Vijayakumar et al., in 2016 in the journal Human Brain Mapping.

    Brain Development

    Importantly, we have now published an additional 45 papers from the OADS describing how different aspects of brain structure and function are influenced by the environment, and/or are associated with mental health and behaviour. Our findings have contributed a wealth of information about the biological mechanisms underlying mental health problems, or promoting resilience.

    For example, in a paper published in the top psychiatry journal in the world, we reported new findings that warm positive parenting behaviours can buffer, or protect the brain from the effects of living in a poor neighbourhood, and this can influence the likelihood that adolescents will complete their final year of high school. These findings were published by Whittle et al., in 2017 in JAMA Psychiatry.

  • Brain Function

    A small group of our participants took part in a study where we looked at their brain activation when they watched video footage of their mothers from the Family Interactions tasks that they did when they were 11-13 years old. We found that when participants were watching footage of their own mothers behaving in a positive way (e.g., smiling, laughing, engaging in pleasant conversation), parts of their brain that are involved in processing rewarding signals were activated. These same regions were not activated when participants watched footage of a stranger behaving in a positive way. This finding suggests that adolescents find their own mother’s positive behaviour particularly rewarding. It could be the same for dads, but not enough took part for us to examine this. This research was published by Whittle et al., in 2011 in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.

  • Family Interactions

    We videotaped family interactions in 2004, wherein our roughly 12 year old participants had conversations with one of their parents in which they planned some fun things to do together (like planning a holiday or a party), and then tried to solve some problems they were having (like cleaning up their room or fighting with siblings). We found that the way families behaved was related to whether adolescents experienced any difficulties with their mood in the following six years. For example, we found that when parents behaved negatively in the event planning  task (which was supposed to be fun), adolescents were at increased risk of having mood problems, but when parents behaved positively in the problem solving task (which are known to cause arguments), adolescents had a lower risk of mood problems. This informs us that the ‘emotional climate’ of one’s family can play a significant role in adolescents’ development. It also highlights that having positive family interactions is just as important as trying to prevent negative ones for good mental health. These findings were published by Schwartz et al., in 2014 in Clinical Psychological Science.

  • Risk Taking Behaviours

    Adolescence is a period of increased participation in risk-taking behaviours. While most adolescents have a natural tendency to take risks (and this can be adaptive!), excessive levels of risk-taking can have negative consequences. Based on OADS data, we found that both temperament and cognitive control ability predicted risk-taking behaviour. Importantly, although participants who were more temperamentally prone to frustration engaged in more risk-taking behaviours, this was not the case if these participants also had good cognitive control (i.e., a more developed ability to regulate their behaviour). These findings suggest that it is possible to reduce problematic risk-taking behaviour by learning and practicing how to improve cognitive control abilities. These findings were published by Youssef et al. in 2016 in the journal Child Development.

Publications

  • Brain Development

    Baker, S. T., D. I. Lubman, M. Yucel, N. B. Allen, S. Whittle and B. D. Fulcher (2015). "Developmental Changes in Brain Network Hub Connectivity in Late Adolescence."  35(24): 9078-9087.

    Chye, Y., Suo, C., Lorenzetti, V., Batalla, A., Cousijn, J., Goudriaan, A.E., Martin-Santinos, R., Whittle, S., Solowij, N., Yucel, M. (2018). “ Cortical surface morphology in long-term cannabis users: A multi-site MRI study”. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 0924-977X

    Dennison, M., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, M. L. Byrne, O. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2015). "Trait positive affect is associated with hippocampal volume and change in caudate volume across adolescence." Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 15(1): 80-94.

    Dennison, M., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, N. Vijayakumar, A. Kline, J. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2013). "Mapping subcortical brain maturation during adolescence: evidence of hemisphere- and sex-specific longitudinal changes." Dev Sci 16(5): 772-791.

    Dwyer, D. B., B. J. Harrison, M. Yucel, S. Whittle, A. Zalesky, C. Pantelis, N. B. Allen and A. Fornito (2014). "Large-scale brain network dynamics supporting adolescent cognitive control." J Neurosci 34(42): 14096-14107.

    Friedel, S., S. L. Whittle, N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, M. L. Byrne, O. S. Schwartz and N. B. Allen (2015). "Dispositional mindfulness is predicted by structural development of the insula during late adolescence." Dev Cogn Neurosci14: 62-70.

    Ganella, D. E., N. B. Allen, J. G. Simmons, O. Schwartz, J. H. Kim, L. Sheeber and S. Whittle (2015). "Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-a longitudinal study." Psychoneuroendocrinology 53: 185-194.

    Oostermeijer, S., S. Whittle, C. Suo, N. B. Allen, J. G. Simmons, N. Vijayakumar, P. M. van de Ven, L. M. Jansen, M. Yucel and A. Popma (2016). "Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study." Transl Psychiatry 6(6): e841.

    Schmaal, L., M. Yucel, R. Ellis, N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, N. B. Allen and S. Whittle (2017). "Brain Structural Signatures of Adolescent Depressive Symptom Trajectories: A Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 56(7): 593-601.e599.

    Vijayakumar, N., N. B. Allen, M. Dennison, M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons and S. Whittle (2017). "Cortico-amygdalar maturational coupling is associated with depressive symptom trajectories during adolescence." Neuroimage 156: 403-411.

    Vijayakumar, N., N. B. Allen, G. Youssef, M. Dennison, M. Yucel, J. G. Simmons and S. Whittle (2016). "Brain development during adolescence: A mixed-longitudinal investigation of cortical thickness, surface area, and volume." Hum Brain Mapp 37(6): 2027-2038.

    Vijayakumar, N., S. Whittle, M. Dennison, M. Yucel, J. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2014). "Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study." Dev Cogn Neurosci 9: 30-43.

    Vijayakumar, N., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, M. Dennison, J. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2014). "Prefrontal structural correlates of cognitive control during adolescent development: a 4-year longitudinal study." J Cogn Neurosci 26(5): 1118-1130.

    Vijayakumar, N., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, M. Dennison, J. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2014). "Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females." Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(11): 1845-1854.

    Whittle, S., M. Dennison, N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, D. I. Lubman, C. Pantelis and N. B. Allen (2013). "Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology affect brain development during adolescence." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry52(9): 940-952.e941.

    Whittle, S., J. G. Simmons, M. Dennison, N. Vijayakumar, O. Schwartz, M. B. Yap, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2014). "Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study." Dev Cogn Neurosci8: 7-17.

    Whittle, S., N. Vijayakumar, M. Dennison, O. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2016). "Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence." PLoS One 11(1): e0147774.

    Whittle, S., N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, M. Dennison, O. Schwartz, C. Pantelis, L. Sheeber, M. L. Byrne and N. B. Allen (2017). "Role of Positive Parenting in the Association Between Neighborhood Social Disadvantage and Brain Development Across Adolescence." JAMA Psychiatry 74(8): 824-832.

    Whittle, Sarah, Renee Lichter, Meg Dennison, Nandita Vijayakumar, Orli Schwartz, Michelle L. Byrne, Julian G. Simmons et al. (2014). "Structural brain development and depression onset during adolescence: a prospective longitudinal study." American Journal of Psychiatry 171 (5): 564-571.

    Wrigglesworth, J., Ryan, J., Vijayakumar , N., Whittle, S. (2018). “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor DNA methylation mediates the association between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent brain structure”. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 0925-492&

  • Depression

    Byrne, M. L., N. M. O'Brien-Simpson, S. A. Mitchell and N. B. Allen (2015). "Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?" Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 46(6): 839-850.

    Callaghan, B. L., O. Dandash, J. G. Simmons, O. Schwartz, M. L. Byrne, L. Sheeber, N. B. Allen and S. Whittle (2017). "Amygdala Resting Connectivity Mediates Association Between Maternal Aggression and Adolescent Major Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 56(11): 983-991.e983.

    Davey, C. G., S. Whittle, B. J. Harrison, J. G. Simmons, M. L. Byrne, O. S. Schwartz and N. B. Allen (2015). "Functional brain-imaging correlates of negative affectivity and the onset of first-episode depression." Psychol Med45(5): 1001-1009.

    Ellis, R., M. L. Seal, C. Adamson, R. Beare, J. G. Simmons, S. Whittle and N. B. Allen (2017). "Brain connectivity networks and longitudinal trajectories of depression symptoms in adolescence." Psychiatry Res 260: 62-69.

    Ellis, R. E. R. (2017). "Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression Symptoms in Adolescence: Psychosocial Risk Factors and Outcomes." J Consult Clin Psychol 48(4): 554-571.

    Gate, M. A., E. R. Watkins, J. G. Simmons, M. L. Byrne, O. S. Schwartz, S. Whittle, L. B. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2013). "Maternal parenting behaviors and adolescent depression: the mediating role of rumination." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 42(3): 348-357.

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, S. Whittle and J. A. Macdonald (2017). "Sometimes It's Good to be Short: The Serotonin Transporter Gene, Positive Parenting, and Adolescent Depression."

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, S. Whittle, G. J. Youssef, M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, D. L. Foley and N. B. Allen (2014). "Association between serotonin transporter genotype, brain structure and adolescent-onset major depressive disorder: a longitudinal prospective study." Transl Psychiatry 4: e445.

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, G. J. Youssef, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, L. B. Sheeber, D. L. Foley and N. B. Allen (2015). "Linking the serotonin transporter gene, family environments, hippocampal volume and depression onset: A prospective imaging gene x environment analysis." J Abnorm Psychol124(4): 834-849.

    Schmaal, L., M. Yucel, R. Ellis, N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, N. B. Allen and S. Whittle (2017). "Brain Structural Signatures of Adolescent Depressive Symptom Trajectories: A Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 56(7): 593-601.e599.

    Schwartz, O. S., P. Dudgeon, L. B. Sheeber, M. B. Yap, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2011). "Observed maternal responses to adolescent behaviour predict the onset of major depression." Behav Res Ther 49(5): 331-338.

    Schwartz, O. S., P. Dudgeon, L. B. Sheeber, M. B. Yap, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2012). "Parental behaviors during family interactions predict changes in depression and anxiety symptoms during adolescence." J Abnorm Child Psychol 40(1): 59-71.

    Schwartz, O. S., L. B. Sheeber, P. Dudgeon and N. B. Allen (2012). "Emotion socialization within the family environment and adolescent depression." Clin Psychol Rev 32(6): 447-453.

    Schwartz, O.S., Rowell, V.J., Whittle, S., Byrne, M.L., Simmons, J.G., Sheeber, L., McKenzie, V., Allen, N.B. (2018). “Family meta-emotion and the onset of major depressive disorder in adolescence: A prospective longitudinal study”. Social Development 27(3): 526-542.

    Strikwerda-Brown, C., C. G. Davey, S. Whittle, N. B. Allen, M. L. Byrne, O. S. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons, D. Dwyer and B. J. Harrison (2015). "Mapping the relationship between subgenual cingulate cortex functional connectivity and depressive symptoms across adolescence." Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 10(7): 961-968.

    Vijayakumar, N., N. B. Allen, M. Dennison, M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons and S. Whittle (2017). "Cortico-amygdalar maturational coupling is associated with depressive symptom trajectories during adolescence." Neuroimage 156: 403-411.

    Whittle, S., M. B. Yap, L. Sheeber, P. Dudgeon, M. Yucel, C. Pantelis, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2011). "Hippocampal volume and sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior: a prospective study of adolescent depressive symptoms." Dev Psychopathol 23(1): 115-129

    Whittle, S., M. Yucel, V. Lorenzetti, M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons, S. J. Wood, C. Pantelis and N. B. Allen (2012). "Pituitary volume mediates the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms during adolescence." Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(7): 881-891.

    Whittle, Sarah, Renee Lichter, Meg Dennison, Nandita Vijayakumar, Orli Schwartz, Michelle L. Byrne, Julian G. Simmons et al. (2014). "Structural brain development and depression onset during adolescence: a prospective longitudinal study." American Journal of Psychiatry 171 (5): 564-571.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen, M. O'Shea, P. di Parsia, J. G. Simmons and L. Sheeber (2011). "Early adolescents' temperament, emotion regulation during mother-child interactions, and depressive symptomatology." Dev Psychopathol 23(1): 267-282.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen and L. Sheeber (2007). "Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders." Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 10(2): 180-196.

    Yap, Marie BH, Sarah Whittle, Murat YĆ¼cel, Lisa Sheeber, Christos Pantelis, Julian G. Simmons, and Nicholas B. Allen. "Interaction of parenting experiences and brain structure in the prediction of depressive symptoms in adolescents." Archives of general psychiatry 65, no. 12 (2008): 1377-1385.

    Zipursky, A. R., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, V. Lorenzetti, S. J. Wood, D. I. Lubman, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2011). "Pituitary volume prospectively predicts internalizing symptoms in adolescence." J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52(3): 315-323.

  • Genetics

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, S. Whittle and J. A. Macdonald (2017). "Sometimes It's Good to be Short: The Serotonin Transporter Gene, Positive Parenting, and Adolescent Depression."

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, S. Whittle, G. J. Youssef, M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, D. L. Foley and N. B. Allen (2014). "Association between serotonin transporter genotype, brain structure and adolescent-onset major depressive disorder: a longitudinal prospective study." Transl Psychiatry 4: e445.

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, G. J. Youssef, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, L. B. Sheeber, D. L. Foley and N. B. Allen (2015). "Linking the serotonin transporter gene, family environments, hippocampal volume and depression onset: A prospective imaging gene x environment analysis." J Abnorm Psychol124(4): 834-849.

    Wrigglesworth, J., Ryan, J., Vijayakumar , N., Whittle, S. (2018). “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor DNA methylation mediates the association between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent brain structure”. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 0925-4927.

  • Other Mental Health or Behavioural Problems

    Jovev, M., T. McKenzie, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, N. B. Allen and A. M. Chanen (2013). "Temperament and Maltreatment in the Emergence of Borderline and Antisocial Personality Pathology during Early Adolescence." J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 22(3): 220-229.

    Jovev, M., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, J. G. Simmons, N. B. Allen and A. M. Chanen (2014). "The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology." Dev Psychopathol 26(1): 275-285.

    Kaess, M., Whittle, S., Simmons, J.G., Jovev, M., Allen, N.B., & Chanen, A.M., 2017. The interaction of childhood maltreatment, sex, and borderline personality features in the prediction of the cortisol awakening response in adolescents’. Psychopathology 50(3), 188–194.

    Oostermeijer, S., S. Whittle, C. Suo, N. B. Allen, J. G. Simmons, N. Vijayakumar, P. M. van de Ven, L. M. Jansen, M. Yucel and A. Popma (2016). "Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study." Transl Psychiatry 6(6): e841.

    Visser, T. A., J. L. Ohan, S. Whittle, M. Yucel, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2014). "Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents." Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(4): 553-560.

    Youssef, G. J., S. Whittle, N. B. Allen, D. I. Lubman, J. G. Simmons and M. Yucel (2016). "Cognitive Control as a Moderator of Temperamental Motivations Toward Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior." Child Dev 87(2): 395-404.

  • Parenting and Family Factors

    Byrne, M. L., S. Horne, N. M. O'Brien-Simpson, K. A. Walsh, E. C. Reynolds, O. S. Schwartz, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2017). "Associations between observed parenting behavior and adolescent inflammation two and a half years later in a community sample." Health Psychol 36(7): 641-651.

    Byrne, M.L., Schwartz, O.S., Simmons, J.G., Sheeber, L., Whittle, S., Allen, N.B. (2018) “Duration of Breastfeeding and Subsequent Adolescent Obesity: Effects of Maternal Behavior and Socioeconomic Status”. Journal of Adolescent Health 62(4): 471-479

    Callaghan, B. L., O. Dandash, J. G. Simmons, O. Schwartz, M. L. Byrne, L. Sheeber, N. B. Allen and S. Whittle (2017). "Amygdala Resting Connectivity Mediates Association Between Maternal Aggression and Adolescent Major Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 56(11): 983-991.e983.

    Davenport, E., M. B. Yap, J. G. Simmons, L. B. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2011). "Maternal and adolescent temperament as predictors of maternal affective behavior during mother-adolescent interactions." J Adolesc 34(5): 829-839.

    Gate, M. A., E. R. Watkins, J. G. Simmons, M. L. Byrne, O. S. Schwartz, S. Whittle, L. B. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2013). "Maternal parenting behaviors and adolescent depression: the mediating role of rumination." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 42(3): 348-357.

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, S. Whittle and J. A. Macdonald (2017). "Sometimes It's Good to be Short: The Serotonin Transporter Gene, Positive Parenting, and Adolescent Depression."

    Little, K., C. A. Olsson, G. J. Youssef, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, L. B. Sheeber, D. L. Foley and N. B. Allen (2015). "Linking the serotonin transporter gene, family environments, hippocampal volume and depression onset: A prospective imaging gene x environment analysis." J Abnorm Psychol124(4): 834-849.

    Nelson, B. W., M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons, S. Whittle, O. S. Schwartz, E. C. Reynolds, N. M. O'Brien-Simpson, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2017). "Adolescent sympathetic activity and salivary C-reactive protein: The effects of parental behavior." Health Psychol 36(10): 955-965.

    Schwartz, O.S., Byrne, M.L., Simmons, J.G., Whittle, S., Dudgeon, P., Yap, M.B., Sheeber, L.B. and Allen, N.B., 2014. Parenting during early adolescence and adolescent-onset major depression: A 6-year prospective longitudinal study. Clinical Psychological Science 2(3), 272-286.

    Schwartz, O. S., P. Dudgeon, L. B. Sheeber, M. B. Yap, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2011). "Observed maternal responses to adolescent behaviour predict the onset of major depression." Behav Res Ther 49(5): 331-338.

    Schwartz, O. S., P. Dudgeon, L. B. Sheeber, M. B. Yap, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2012). "Parental behaviors during family interactions predict changes in depression and anxiety symptoms during adolescence." J Abnorm Child Psychol 40(1): 59-71.

    Schwartz, O.S., Rowell, V.J., Whittle, S., Byrne, M.L., Simmons, J.G., Sheeber, L., McKenzie, V., Allen, N.B. (2018). “Family meta-emotion and the onset of major depressive disorder in adolescence: A prospective longitudinal study”. Social Development 27(3): 526-542.

    Schwartz, O. S., L. B. Sheeber, P. Dudgeon and N. B. Allen (2012). "Emotion socialization within the family environment and adolescent depression." Clin Psychol Rev 32(6): 447-453.

    Vijayakumar, N., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, M. L. Byrne, O. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2016). "Impaired Maturation of Cognitive Control in Adolescents Who Develop Major Depressive Disorder." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 45(1): 31-43.

    Whittle, S., J. G. Simmons, M. Dennison, N. Vijayakumar, O. Schwartz, M. B. Yap, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2014). "Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study." Dev Cogn Neurosci 8: 7-17.

    Whittle, S., N. Vijayakumar, M. Dennison, O. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2016). "Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence." PLoS One 11(1): e0147774.

    Whittle, S., N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, M. Dennison, O. Schwartz, C. Pantelis, L. Sheeber, M. L. Byrne and N. B. Allen (2017). "Role of Positive Parenting in the Association Between Neighborhood Social Disadvantage and Brain Development Across Adolescence." JAMA Psychiatry 74(8): 824-832.

    Whittle, S., M. B. Yap, L. Sheeber, P. Dudgeon, M. Yucel, C. Pantelis, J. G. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2011). "Hippocampal volume and sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior: a prospective study of adolescent depressive symptoms." Dev Psychopathol 23(1): 115-129.

    Whittle, S., M. B. Yap, M. Yucel, A. Fornito, J. G. Simmons, A. Barrett, L. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2008). "Prefrontal and amygdala volumes are related to adolescents' affective behaviors during parent-adolescent interactions." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(9): 3652-3657.

    Whittle, S., M. B. Yap, M. Yucel, L. Sheeber, J. G. Simmons, C. Pantelis and N. B. Allen (2009). "Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents' reward neuroanatomy." Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 4(3): 247-256.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen, C. Leve and L. F. Katz (2008). "Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament." J Fam Psychol 22(5): 688-700.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen, M. O'Shea, P. di Parsia, J. G. Simmons and L. Sheeber (2011). "Early adolescents' temperament, emotion regulation during mother-child interactions, and depressive symptomatology." Dev Psychopathol 23(1): 267-282.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen and L. Sheeber (2007). "Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders." Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 10(2): 180-196.

  • Stress and Adversity

    Byrne, M.L., Schwartz, O.S., Simmons, J.G., Sheeber, L., Whittle, S., & Allen, N.B. (2017). Duration of breastfeeding and subsequent adolescent obesity: Effects of maternal behavior and socio-economic status. Journal of Adolescent Health. (Accepted November, 2017).

    Kaess, M., Whittle, S., O’Brien-Simpson, L., Allen, N.B., Simmons, J.G. (2018). "Childhood maltreatment, pituitary volume and adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis – Evidence for a maltreatment-related attenuation". Psychoneuroendocrinology 98, 39-45.

    Kaess, M., Whittle, S., Simmons, J.G., Jovev, M., Allen, N.B., & Chanen, A.M., 2017. The interaction of childhood maltreatment, sex, and borderline personality features in the prediction of the cortisol awakening response in adolescents’. Psychopathology 50(3), 188–194.

    Ganella, D. E., N. B. Allen, J. G. Simmons, O. Schwartz, J. H. Kim, L. Sheeber and S. Whittle (2015). "Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-a longitudinal study." Psychoneuroendocrinology 53: 185-194.

    Whittle, S., M. Dennison, N. Vijayakumar, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel, D. I. Lubman, C. Pantelis and N. B. Allen (2013). "Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology affect brain development during adolescence." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry52(9): 940-952.e941.

  • Substance Use

    Cheetham, A., N. B. Allen, O. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons, S. Whittle, M. L. Byrne, L. Sheeber and D. I. Lubman (2015). "Affective behavior and temperament predict the onset of smoking in adolescence." Psychol Addict Behav 29(2): 347-354.

    Cheetham, A., Allen, N.B., Whittle, S., Simmons, J.G., Yucel, M., Lubman, D.I. (2018) “Amygdala volume mediates the relationship between externalizing symptoms and daily smoking in adolescence: A prospective study”. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 276: 46-52.

    Cheetham, A., N. B. Allen, S. Whittle, J. Simmons, M. Yucel and D. I. Lubman (2014). "Volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate cortex prospectively predict alcohol-related problems in adolescence." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231(8): 1731-1742.

    Cheetham, A., N. B. Allen, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, M. Yucel and D. I. Lubman (2012). "Orbitofrontal volumes in early adolescence predict initiation of cannabis use: a 4-year longitudinal and prospective study." Biol Psychiatry 71(8): 684-692.

    Chye, Y., Suo, C., Lorenzetti, V., Batalla, A., Cousijn, J., Goudriaan, A.E., Martin-Santinos, R., Whittle, S., Solowij, N., Yucel, M. (2018). “ Cortical surface morphology in long-term cannabis users: A multi-site MRI study”. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 0924-977X

  • Temperament

    Cheetham, A., N. B. Allen, O. Schwartz, J. G. Simmons, S. Whittle, M. L. Byrne, L. Sheeber and D. I. Lubman (2015). "Affective behavior and temperament predict the onset of smoking in adolescence." Psychol Addict Behav 29(2): 347-354.

    Davenport, E., M. B. Yap, J. G. Simmons, L. B. Sheeber and N. B. Allen (2011). "Maternal and adolescent temperament as predictors of maternal affective behavior during mother-adolescent interactions." J Adolesc 34(5): 829-839.

    Jovev, M., T. McKenzie, S. Whittle, J. G. Simmons, N. B. Allen and A. M. Chanen (2013). "Temperament and Maltreatment in the Emergence of Borderline and Antisocial Personality Pathology during Early Adolescence." J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 22(3): 220-229.

    Jovev, M., S. Whittle, M. Yucel, J. G. Simmons, N. B. Allen and A. M. Chanen (2014). "The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology." Dev Psychopathol 26(1): 275-285.

    Simmons, J. G., A. V. Sanson, D. L. Foley, N. B. Allen, B. W. Nelson, M. L. Byrne, J. G. Simmons, S. Whittle, O. S. Schwartz, N. M. O'Brien-Simpson, K. A. Walsh, E. C. Reynolds and N. B. Allen (2017). "Adolescent temperament dimensions as stable prospective risk and protective factors for salivary C-reactive protein." Child Dev.

    Vijayakumar, N., S. Whittle, M. Dennison, M. Yucel, J. Simmons and N. B. Allen (2014). "Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study." Dev Cogn Neurosci 9: 30-43.

    Whittle, S., N. B. Allen, A. Fornito, D. I. Lubman, J. G. Simmons, C. Pantelis and M. Yucel (2009). "Variations in cortical folding patterns are related to individual differences in temperament." Psychiatry Res 172(1): 68-74.

    Whittle, S., C. Bartholomeusz, M. Yucel, M. Dennison, N. Vijayakumar and N. B. Allen (2014). "Orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns are related to temperamental risk for psychopathology." Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(2): 232-239.

    Whittle, S., M. Yucel, A. Fornito, A. Barrett, S. J. Wood, D. I. Lubman, J. Simmons, C. Pantelis and N. B. Allen (2008). "Neuroanatomical correlates of temperament in early adolescents." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry47(6): 682-693.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen, C. Leve and L. F. Katz (2008). "Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament." J Fam Psychol 22(5): 688-700.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen, M. O'Shea, P. di Parsia, J. G. Simmons and L. Sheeber (2011). "Early adolescents' temperament, emotion regulation during mother-child interactions, and depressive symptomatology." Dev Psychopathol 23(1): 267-282.

    Yap, M. B., N. B. Allen and L. Sheeber (2007). "Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders." Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 10(2): 180-196.

    Youssef, G. J., S. Whittle, N. B. Allen, D. I. Lubman, J. G. Simmons and M. Yucel (2016). "Cognitive Control as a Moderator of Temperamental Motivations Toward Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior." Child Dev 87(2): 395-404.

    Yucel, M., A. Fornito, G. Youssef, D. Dwyer, S. Whittle, S. J. Wood, D. I. Lubman, J. Simmons, C. Pantelis and N. B. Allen (2012). "Inhibitory control in young adolescents: the role of sex, intelligence, and temperament." Neuropsychology26(3): 347-356.

  • Other

    Byrne, M.L., Schwartz, O.S., Simmons, J.G., Sheeber, L., Whittle, S., & Allen, N.B. (2017). Duration of breastfeeding and subsequent adolescent obesity: Effects of maternal behavior and socio-economic status. Journal of Adolescent Health. (Accepted November, 2017).

    Latham, M. D., N. Cook, J. G. Simmons, M. L. Byrne, J. W. L. Kettle, O. Schwartz, N. Vijayakumar, S. Whittle and N. B. Allen (2017). "Physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in early adolescents." Biol Psychol 127: 229-238.