Journal Articles


  • Frattaroli, N., Geljic, M., Runkowska, D., Darke, H., Reddyhough, Caitlin., Mills, T., Mitchell, M., Hill, R., Carter, O., Sundram. S., (2022) Cognitive and perceptual impairments in schizophrenia extend to other psychotic disorders but not schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 143, 30-8 [PDF]
  • Woods, T., Windt, J. & Carter, O. (2022) Evidence synthesis indicates contentless experiences in meditation are neither truly contentless nor identical. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. 1-52 [PDF]
  • Woods, T., Windt, J. & Carter, O. (2022) The path to contentless experiences in meditation: An evidence synthesis based on expert texts. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. 1-38 [PDF]


  • Dzafic, I., Larsen, K., Darke, H., Pertile, H., Carter, O., Sundram, S & Garrido, M. (2021) Stronger Top-Down and Weaker Bottom-Up Frontotemporal connections during sensory learning are associated with severity of psychotic phenomena Schizophrenia Bulletin 47(4): 1039-47 [PDF]
  • Nguyen, B., Malavita, M., Carter, O., McKendrick, A. (2021) Neuroplasticity in older adults revealed by temporary occlusion of one eye, Cortex 143 1-11 [PDF]
  • Darke, H., Sundram, S., Cropper, S. & Carter. O (2021) Dynamic face processing impairments are associated with cognitive and positive psychotic symptoms across psychiatric disorders. NPJ Schizophrenia 7: 36 [Link]
  • Virathone, L., Nguyen, B., Dobson, F., Carter, O. & McKendrick, A (2021)  Exercise alone impacts short-term adult visual neuroplasticity in a monocular deprivation paradigm Journal of vision 21 (11), 1-17 [Link]
  • Perkins, D., et al. (2021) Medicinal Psychedelics for Mental Health and Addiction: Advancing research of an emerging paradigm. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 55(12) 1127-33 [PDF]
  • Kanaan, R., Huepe-Artigas, D., Morsy, S. & Carter, O. (2021) Power and pragmatism in functional neurological disorder research. Epilepsy & Behaviour 117: 107801 [PDF]
  • Huepe-Artigas, D., Carter, O., Morsy, S. & Kanaan, R. (2021) Clinical differences between patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and functional motor disorder. Epilepsy & Behaviour 114: 107577 [PDF]


  • Carter, O., van Swinderen, B., Leopold., Collin, S. & Maier, A. (2020) Perceptual rivalry across animal species. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 528: 3123-33 [PDF]
  • Meikle, S., Carter, O. & Bedi, G. (2020) Individual differences in distress, impulsivity, and coping motives for use as predictors of problematic ecstasy use. Addictive Behaviors 108: 106397. 1-7 [PDF]
  • Larsen, M., Dzafic, I., Darke, H., Pertile. H., Carter. O., Sundram. S & Garrido, M. (2020) Aberrant connectivity in auditory precision encoding in schizophrenia spectrum disorder and across the continuum of psychotic-like experiences. Schizophrenia Research 222: 185-194 [PDF]
  • Woods, T., Windt, J. & Carter, O. (2020) Silence in Shamatha, Transcendental, and Stillness Meditation: An Evidence Synthesis Based on Expert Texts Frontiers in Psychology 11: 1259: 1-19 [PDF] [Supplementary material (documents 1-11) including full expert text extraction tables - Zip File]


  • Stanley, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O (2019) Rivalry onset in and around the Fovea: The role of visual field location and eye dominance on perceptual dominance bias Vision 3(4), 51 [PDF]
  • Carter, A., Richards, L et al. (2019) A Neuroethics Framework for the Australian Brain Initiative Neuron 101: 365-369 [PDF]
  • Chan, Y., Pitchaimuthu, Q., Wu, Q., Carter, O., Egan, G., Badcock, D. & McKendrick, A. (2019) Relating excitatory and inhibitory neurochemicals to visual perception: a magnetic resonance study of occipital cortex between migraine events Plos One  14(7): e0208666 [PDF]
  • Thakkar, K., Antinori, A., Carter, O. & Brascamp, J. (2019) Altered short-term neural plasticity related to schizotypal traits: evidence from visual adaptation Schizophrenia Research 207: 48-57 [PDF]
  • Darke, H., Cropper, S. & Carter, O (2019) A Novel Dynamic Morphed Stimuli Set to Assess Sensitivity to Identity and Emotion Attributes in Faces Frontiers in Psychology 10: 757 [PDF] [Stimuli Set Zip File]


  • Carter, O., Hohwy, J., van Boxtel, J., Lamme, V., Block, N., Koch, C. & Tsuchiya, N (2018) Conscious machines: Defining questions Science 359 (6374): 400 [PDF]
  • Bayne, T. & Carter, O. (2018) Dimensions of Consciousness and the psychedelic state  Neuroscience of Consciousness (1) niy008: 1-8 [PDF]
  • Liu, P., Forte, J., Sewell, D. & Carter. O. (2018) Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing Attention, Perception and Psychophysics 80(4): 929-950 [PDF]
  • Riddell, C., Jensen, C. & Carter, O. (2018) Cognitive Enhancement and Coping in an Australian University Student Sample. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:63-69 [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Bennett, D., Nash, T., Arnold, S., Brown, L., Cai, R. Y., Allan, Z., Dluzniak, A., McAnally. K., Burr, D., & Sundram. S. (2017). Sensory integration deficits support a dimensional view of psychosis and are not limited to schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry 7: e1118. [PDF]
  • Pitchaimuthu, K., Wu, Q., Carter, O., Nguyen., B., Ahn, S., Egan., G. & McKendrick, A. (2017) Occipital GABA levels in older adults and their relationship to visual perceptual suppression. Scientific Reports 7: 14231 [URL]
  • Antinori, A., Carter, O. & Smillie, L. (2017). Seeing It Both Ways: Openness to Experience and Binocular Rivalry Suppression. Journal of Research in Personality 68: 15-22. [PDF]
  • Antinori, A., Smillie, L. & Carter, O. (2017). Personality Measures Link Slower Binocular Rivalry Switch Rates to Higher Levels of Self-Discipline. Front Psychol 7: 2008. [PDF]
  • Bryson, A., Carter, O., Norman, T. & Kanaan, R. (2017). 5-HT2A Agonists: A Novel Therapy for Functional Neurological Disorders? Int J Neuropsychopharmacology 20(5): 422-27. [PDF]


  • Carter, O., & Forte, J. (2016). Regulate devices for brain stimulation. Nature 533(7602): 179–179. [PDF]
  • Bennett, D., Dluzniak, A., Cropper, S. & Partos, T., Sundram, S. & Carter, O. (2016). Selective impairment of global motion integration, but not global form detection, in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 3: 11-14. [PDF]
  • Howe, P. & Carter, O. (2016). Hallucinations and mental imagery demonstrate top-down effects on visual perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39: e248.[PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Carter, O., & Forte, J. (2016). No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols. Neuropsychologia 91: 544–52. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Vogrin, S., Carter, O., Cook, M. & Forte, J. (2016). Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions. Experimental Brain Research 234(9): 2629–42. [PDF]


  • Horvath, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O. (2015). Quantitative Review Finds No Evidence of Cognitive Effects in Healthy Populations From Single-session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Brain Stimulation 8(3): 535–50. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J., Forte, J. & Carter, O. (2015). Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review: Neuropsychologia 66: 213-36. [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Snyder, J., Fung, S., & Rubin, N. (2014). Using ambiguous plaid stimuli to investigate the influence of immediate prior experience on perception. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 76(1): 133–147. [PDF]
  • Horvath, J. C., Carter, O., & Forte, J. D. (2014). Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be). Front Syst Neurosci 8: 2. [PDF]
  • O'Connor, D. A., Meade, B., Carter, O., Rossiter, S., & Hester, R. (2014). Behavioral sensitivity to reward is reduced for far objects. Psychological Science 25(1): 271–77. [PDF]


  • Stoll, J., Chatelle, C., Carter, O., Koch, C., Laureys, S., & Einhäuser, W. (2013). Pupil responses allow communication in locked-in syndrome patients. Current Biology 23(15): R647–8. [PDF]
  • Barutchu, A., Carter, O., Hester, R., & Levy, N. (2013). Strength in cognitive self-regulation. Front Psychol 4: 174, 1-10 [PDF]
  • Barutchu, A., Becker, S., Carter, O., Hester, R., & Levy, N. (2013). The Role of Task-Related Learned Representations in Explaining Asymmetries in Task Switching. PLoS One 8(4): 1-10. [PDF]
  • Darke, H., Peterman, J. S., Park, S., Sundram, S., & Carter, O. (2013). Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces? Front Psychol 4: 529, 1-8. [PDF]
  • Naber, M., Stoll, J., Einhäuser, W., & Carter, O. (2013). How to become a mentalist: reading decisions from a competitor's pupil can be achieved without training but requires instruction. PloS One 8(8): e73302. [PDF]


  • Kometer, M., Cahn, B., Andel, D., Carter, O. & Vollenweider, F. (2011) 5-HT2A/1A agonist psilocybin disrupts modal object completion associated with visual hallucinations. Biological Psychiatry 69(5): 399-406.[PDF]
  • McKendrick, A., Battista, J., Snyder, J. & Carter, O. (2011) Visual and auditory perceptual rivalry in migraine. Cephalalgia 31(11): 58-69. [PDF]
  • Cocchi, L., Toepel, U., De Lucia, M., Martuzzi, R., Wood, S., Carter, O. & Murray, M. (2011) Working memory load improves early stages of independent visual processing. Neuropsychologia 49(1): 92-102. [PDF]
  • Cocchi, L., Zalesky, A., Toepel, U., Whitford, J., De Lucia, M., Murray, M. & Carter, O. (2011) Dynamic changes in brain functional connectivity during concurrent dual-task performance. PLoS One 6(11): e28301 1-9. [PDF]
  • Stanley, J., Forte, J., Cavanagh, P. & Carter, O. (2011) Onset rivalry: the initial dominance phase is independent of ongoing perceptual alternations. Front Hum Neurosci 5:140. [PDF]
  • Stanley, J., Carter, O. & Forte, J. (2011) Color and luminance influence, but can not explain, binocular rivalry onset bias PLoS One 6(5): e18978 1-9. [PDF]


  • Einhäuser, W., Koch, C. & Carter, O. (2010) Pupil dilation betrays the timing of decisions. Front Hum Neurosci 4(18): 1-9. [PDF]


  • Snyder, J., Carter, O., Hannon, E. & Alain. C. (2009) Adaptation reveals multiple levels of representation in auditory stream segregation. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 35(4): 1232-44. [PDF]
  • Snyder, J., Holder, W. T., Weintraub, D., Carter, O. & Alain, C. (2009) Effects of prior stimulus and prior perception on neural correlates of auditory stream segregation. Psychophysiology 46(6): 1208-15. [PDF]
  • Naber, M., Carter, O., & Verstraten, F. (2009) Suppression wave dynamics: visual field anisotropies and inducer strength. Vision Research 49(14): 1805-13. [PDF]
  • Cocchi, L., Bosisio, F., Carter, O., Wood, S., Berchtold, A., Conus, P., Orita, A., Debbané, M. & Schenk, F. (2009) Visuospatial working memory deficits and visual pursuit impairments are not directly related in schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 43:766-74. [PDF]


  • Einhäuser, W., Stout, J., Koch, C. & Carter, O. (2008) Pupil dilation reflects perceptual selection and predicts subsequent stability in perceptual rivalry. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(5): 1704-09. [PDF]
  • Snyder, J., Carter, O., Lee, S.K., Hannon, E. & Alain. C. (2008) Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 34(4):1007-16. [PDF]
  • Einhäuser, W., Stout, J., Koch, C. & Carter, O. (2008) Reply to Hupé et al.: The predictive correlation of pupil dilation and relative dominance duration in rivalry is not a statistical artifact. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:E44. [PDF]
  • Carter, O., Konkle, T., Wang, Q., Hayward, V. & Moore, C. (2008) Tactile rivalry demonstrated with ambiguous apparent motion quartet. Current Biology18(4):1050-54 [PDF]


  • Wittmann, M., Carter, O., Grimberg, U., Hasler, F., Cahn, R., Hell, D., Flohr, H. & Vollenweider, F. X. (2007) Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans. J Psychopharmacology 21(1): 50-64. [PDF]
  • Carter, O. & Cavanagh, P. (2007) Onset rivalry: Brief presentation isolates an early independent phase of perceptual competition PLoS One 2(4): e343. [PDF]
  • Carter, O., Hasler, F., Pettigrew, J.D., Wallis, G., Liu, G. B. & Vollenweider, F. X. (2007) Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans. Psychopharmacology 195: 415-24 [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Presti, D., Callistemon, C., Liu, G. B., Ungerer, Y. & Pettigrew, J. D. (2005) Meditation Alters Perceptual Rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist Monks. Current Biology 15(11): R412-R413. [PDF]
  • Carter, O. L., Pettigrew, J. D., Hasler, F., Wallis, G. M., Liu, G. B., Hell, D., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2005). Modulating the rate and rhythmicity of perceptual rivalry alternations with the mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A agonist psilocybin. Neuropsychopharmacology 30(6), 1154–62. [PDF]
  • Carter, O., Burr, D., Pettigrew, J. D., Wallis, G. M., Hasler, F. & Vollenweider, F. X. (2005) Using psilocybin to investigate the relationship between attention, working memory and the Serotonin1A and 2A receptors. J Cog Neuroscience 17(10): 1497-1508. [PDF]


  • Carter, O., Campbell, T., Liu, G. B. & Wallis, G. (2004) Contradictory influence of context on predominance during binocular rivalry. Clin Exp Optom 87 (3): 153-162. [PDF]
  • Carter, O., Pettigrew, J., Burr, D., Alais, D., Hasler, F. & Vollenweider, F. X. (2004) Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception. Neuroreport 15 (12): 1947-51.[PDF]


  • Carter, O. & Pettigrew, J. (2003) A Common Oscillator for Perceptual Rivalries? Perception 32 (3): 295-305. [PDF]


  • Pettigrew, J. & Carter, O. (2002) Vision as motivation: interhemispheric oscillation alters perception. Adv Exp Med Biol 508: 461-9 [PDF]

Book Chapters

  • Pettigrew, J. & Carter, O. (2004) Perceptual Rivalry as an Ultradian Oscillation. In: Binocular rivalry. (Eds.) David Alais and Randolph Blake, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA [PDF]

Popular Media

  • Carter, O., (2012 ongoing). Babies versus Science (a regular column charting the impact of science on a baby's development and the impact of a baby on a scientist's development). The conversation.
  • Carter, O., (2014). The Neuroscience of Gambling The Footy Almanac.
  • Carter, O., (2011). Drugs to enhance us will enchant us … especially if there are no side effects. The Conversation.